Baby hats for winter (fits all)
Measure your baby's head. Add a little for the sewing edge. This
makes the breadth of the material needed (1.)
Estimate length (2.): you need a little more than the distance between the lower back of the head and the top of the head plus some (2-3 fingers) for the part to be turned up. If you want to sew a hat with fringed top, add extra 3-4 fingers for the fringes. It's easier to cut back later than to estimate wrong and start again...
Sew the rectangle into a cylinder. If you have a material that tends to get fringy or you want the hat to be especially warm, make two layers and sew them together on the "wrong" sides. If you have a material that looks almost the same on both sides, sew it so that you sew mainly on the "wrong" side, but leave out the last 2-3 fingers (for the part that's going to be turned up) and sew that on the other side. This way you will get a clean seam on the sides that will look outwards.
Make a small ball for the top of the hat (not necessary for the fringed - simpler - version). Cut a circle, put some cloth into the middle and pull the edges together, starting with the opposite edges (3.).
Prepare the ear parts (not necessary for the simpler version, but recommended for small babies): cut 4 half-circles and sew 2-2 together (of course, on the "wrong" side), put a string into the middle of each ear part according to the picture (4.). Turn them inside out. I usually sew a small edge from the outside as well. Now the end of the string is inside of the ear part.
Gather the top of the hat and turn up the lower edge (5). Sew down the turn-up with "invisible" stitches by hand. Sew the ear parts under the edge. Note that a baby's ears are a little towards the back of the head! Sew the ball on top.
You can gather the cloth 3-4 fingers lower than the upper edge of the cloth and cut it into fringes instead of sewing a ball onto the hat (the extra lenth must be counted in at the beginning!). This is simpler, but only for materials that do not tend to get fringy.